Because computerized antenna modeling has become widespread, and its popularity as a design tool continues to increase, this series will be devoted to helping get the most from the design software used. The articles will focus upon the use of NEC and MININEC, along with useful adjunct software. There are twin goals: to help get the most out of the modeling efforts and to help avoid the pitfalls and temptations built into modeling systems and their use. In the process, one may even come to understand antennas a little better. This series appears as a monthly column in antenneX.

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Antenna Modeling

  Converging Toward Excellence    Under the Limits: MININEC 
  Within the Lines: NEC-2    A Good Start is Half the Trip 
  Putting Sources Where You Can Find Them    Modeling Loads: What Kind, How Much & Where? 
  Maximizing Your Data    Modeling Wire Arrays 
  Modeling Ground Planes & Other Radial Systems    Tapering to Perfection 
  A Ground is Just a Ground: Unless It Is a Model of a Ground!    Verticals At & Over Ground: Sensible Expectations 
  Notes on Reactive Antenna Loads and Their NEC Models:
A. Some Center Loading Basics
 
  Notes on Reactive Antenna Loads and Their NEC Models:
B. Some Mid-Element Loading Basics
  Notes on Reactive Antenna Loads and Their NEC Models:
C. Some Linear Loading Basics
 
 

Notes on Reactive Antenna Loads and Their NEC Models:
D. Some Solenoid Loading Basics

  Notes on Reactive Antenna Loads and Their NEC Models:
E. Some Unfinished Business on Modeling Loads
 
  Why Tri-Banders Are Hard to Model 
  What Can We Learn From Tables?    The Average Gain Test 

The NEC TL Facility 
Physical Models of Parallel Transmission Lines 
  Modeling LPDAs    The Power and the Source 
  Bringing Up the Rear: Front-to-Back Ratios    The Scales of Equivalence 
  Modeling By Equation A. A Beginning    Modeling By Equation B. Bigger and Better Things 
  Modeling By Equation C. Formulas and Blocks    Modeling By Equation D. Scratch Pads and Coordinates 
  A Case Study: a 90' Wire    A Case Study: Rotating a Beam 
  A Clean Sweep    The Second Ground Medium 
  Notes on Using AZ-EL Plots Effectively    Getting a Grip on AZ/EL and Phi/Theta 
  Verticals: Using the MININEC Ground    Radials: Segmentation and Convergence 
  Radials: Complex Radials Systems    Resolution 

Multiple-Feedpoint Loop Modeling
Moving and Rotating
  Modeling Element Substitutes    Designing With NEC: A Case Study: Part 1: The 4 Ss 
  Designing With NEC: A Case Study: Part 2: Evaluation and Reality    A Load in Parallel With a Source 
  So You Want to Read a NEC-Deck    Radiation Plots: Polar or Rectangular; Log or Linear 
  Traps    The NEC-4 IS Card: Insulated Wires 

Testing the Fringes of Modeling Programs
Flipping Among NEC Programs 
  Voltage and Current Sources: How?    GC: Wire Segment Length and Radius Tapering 
  Parallel Sources, Angular Junctions, and Average Gain: Correcting "Weaknesses"    When MININEC is Superior to NEC 
 

Some Comments on Comments

  Some Basic Guideline Graphics for NEC 
  MININEC and NEC: A Design Case Study    NVIS Antenna Models and the Ground Type 
  GM: Coordinate Transformation    GH: Helix-Spiral Specification 
  GH and GM: The NEC-4 Versions    An Orientation to the NEC Output File 
  The 1/2-Wavelength Resonant Dipole as a Core Test Instrument    State of the Art? 
  Wire Grids 1: Plane and Simple    Wire Grids 2: Angular and Awkward 
  4-8-16-Infinite Sided Loops   Refining Physical Transmission-Line Models
  The Average Gain Test Revisited   The GX or Symmetry Geometry Input
  Source-to-Feedline Matching Techniques   Some Numerical Green's Function Rudiments
 

NEC: Power Efficiency vs. Radiation Efficiency

  Developing Antenna Expectations Using Modeling Software
1: Horizontal Wires in the Lower to Medium HF Range
  Developing Antenna Expectations Using Modeling Software
1: Horizontal Wires in the Lower to Medium HF Range (continued)
  Developing Antenna Expectations Using Modeling Software
2A: Vertical Dipoles
  Developing Antenna Expectations Using Modeling Software
2B: Vertical Monopoles
  Developing Antenna Expectations Using Modeling Software
2B: Vertical Monopoles (continued)
  Appreciating EK   The Nature and Adequacy of NEC Correctives
  Insulated Wires: The NEC-2 Way   GA: Creating and Moving Arcs
  Electrical Fields at a Power Level and Distance   NEC-2 Manual Sample Files
  NEC-4 Manual Sample Files   EX and PT
  A Note on Archimedes and Log Spirals for the NEC-4 GH Command   An Orientation to NEC Near Fields
Part 1. NEC-2 Input Basics and Simple Outputs
  An Orientation to NEC Near Fields
Part 2. Some Refinements and NEC-4 Additions
  Calculating Circular Gain
  Convergence Revisited   GR: The "Generate Cylindrical Structure" Command
  Some Basics of the NT Command   Some Further Applications of the NT Command
  Integrating Commands: A Case Study   Planar Reflectors: Wire Grid vs. SM Patch
  S-N, RCA, and MININEC Grounds   The Dipole and the Coax
  Modeling the Un-Modelable   True Azimuth Models: NSI Software
  True Azimuth Models: EZNEC Software   PS: I Change
  Models, Symmetry, and Loads: A Couple of Reminders   Refining Our Notions of Azimuth Patterns
  Scaling Models   Dipoles: Variety and Modeling Hazards
1. Linear, V, and Folded Dipoles in NEC
  Dipoles: Variety and Modeling Hazards
2. Linear, V, and Folded Dipoles in MININEC
  Dipoles: Variety and Modeling Hazards
3. Tapered-Diameter, Bent, and Hatted Dipoles
 

Dipoles: Variety and Modeling Hazards
4. Zigzag, Fold-Back, and Fan Dipoles

  Wires Meeting Ground: 2 Cases
  When Simple Geometries Become Complex: A Rhombic Case Study   Modeling Folded Monopoles
  Single, Bifilar, and Quadrifilar Helices   Insulation Revisited
  Modeling and the Logic of Question Resolution   Modeling Odd Structures: the Gamma Match
Part 1. Gamma Modeling Basics
  Modeling Odd Structures: the Gamma Match
Part 2. Gamma Assembly Variables
  Back on the Ground
  Radiation Patterns and Propagation   Reciprocity: Home on the Range
  Radiating and Transmission Line Currents   Modeling (with) Parabolic Reflectors
  When to Worry and When Not to Worry: A Case Study   "Ideal" Polar Plots
  A Potpourri of Modeler Miscellanea   When Not to Use NEC for Antenna Modeling

Some Rudiments of Receiving Pattern Modeling
Models vs. Prototypes: Why Field Adjustments Will Always be Necessary
  AM BC Modeling with NEC: Part 1   AM BC Modeling with NEC: Part 2
  AM BC Modeling with NEC: Part 3   AM BC Modeling with NEC: Part 4
  AM BC Modeling with NEC: Part 5   AM BC Modeling with NEC: Part 6
  NEC Implementations Cores, Limitations, and Work-Arounds  

Types of Substitute Models

  Antenna Matching with EZNEC Version 5: Part 1. Transformers and Shunt Loads   Antenna Matching with EZNEC Version 5: Part 2. L-Networks
 

Circular R-X Graphs

 

Modeling Radiating Surfaces

  Receiving Directivity   Serial Feedline Connections
  Unequal Serial Feedline Connections   Warnings and Errors: What Does NEC Do and What Should You Do?